Author Archives: zeidlerm

Spanish and Portuguese Ladino Prayer Books in the Bodleian

Guest Blog Entry by Dr Aron Sterk

Jewish liturgy is a rather neglected area of study, and even more so the translations of the liturgy. However prayer books can tell us much about the spiritual and devotional life of a community. Not only the prayers themselves and the various ways in which they are presented on the page, but the very bindings say much about how such devotional literature was used in daily life. The successive editions of the ‘Ladino’ translation of the Prayer Books (Siddur and Mahzor) used by the Western Spanish and Portuguese Jews from the mid 16th to late 18th century are particularly well represented in the Bodleian collections.

This Sephardic liturgy was first translated and printed in Ferrara in 1552, only sixty years after the expulsion from Spain. Printed on the same presses as the famous Ferrara Bible by Yomtob Atias and Abraham Usque it was meant for the use of ‘Marranos’ who had escaped the peninsula after the establishment of the Portuguese Inquisition in 1536 in order to return to Judaism. Most had been cut off from the Hebrew language and Jewish life since the forced conversion in Portugal in 1497. Over the next three centuries, with the centre of Jewish printing shifting to Amsterdam, and a constant stream of new Jews fleeing Iberia for the tolerant North, this version continued to provide an accessible translation for both men and women and formed the basis of dozens of subsequent versions each of which attempted, in different ways, to help the worshipper in following the prayers of the synagogue and private rituals as easily as possible, even including transliterations of portions of the Hebrew (in themselves an interesting linguistic study).

Evidently the literary prestige of the Spanish language and a cultural nostalgia for Sepharad had lent the Spanish text a certain sanctity of its own for the Portuguese-speaking Jews, and they continued to use the 16th century Spanish version despite the fact that the vocabulary, style and pronunciation became increasingly antiquated.

Although the Jews were not officially readmitted into England until after the 1656 mission of R. Menasseh ben Israel to Oliver Cromwell, a first copy of this Spanish liturgy – a neat, little 32mo of Menasseh ben Israel’s own 1636 edition – found its way to Oxford shortly thereafter, for, judging from John Selden’s motto ‘περὶ παντὸς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν’ (“above all liberty”) written across the title page, this copy must have been among Selden’s books donated to the Bodleian in 1659.

[Orden de las Oraciones del mes. Menasseh ben Israel, Amsterdam,
1636 Bod 8° M 31 Th. Seld]

The Manasseh ben Israel edition is very much a ‘pocket’ edition but its binding is rather plain. More typical of the fine bindings often found on these Prayer Books is that of this similarly ‘bijou’ edition printed by Isaac Judah Leon Templo – the son of Judah Leon Templo famous for his reconstruction of the Hebrew Temple – with its fine gauffered (tooled and gilded) fore edges:

[Orden de las Oraciones Cotidianas. Ishac Jehudah Leao Templo, 1734 Bod.954.g.1]

However it was some time before the Jews in England felt a need to publish an edition of their own. The first official publication, the Prayer Book for Rosh haShana and Kippur, came out in 1740 and this edition was a completely new Spanish translation by Isaac Nieto the Haham of the London Spanish and Portuguese Jews, successor and son of the renowned scholar and rabbi David Nieto. The language was a refined and literary, contemporary Castilian Spanish. In the preface addressed to the “pious and devout reader” Nieto states that the previous editions were unfit for prayer being full of “barbarous, uncouth and archaic expressions” in a jargon that was “neither Castilian nor Hebrew.”

[Orden de las Oraciones de Ros-ashana y Kipur, Isaac Nieto, London, 1740  LM   collection. Note the prominent con licencia de los Señores del Mahamad – “with the permission of the gentlemen of the Mahamad”]

An incentive to Haham Nieto’s translation may well have been an illicit and unauthorised publication of the Prayer Book in London nineteen years earlier by a certain Joseph Messias of whom little is known beyond the fact that he had been on the list of destitute Jews receiving charitable assistance in Amsterdam and was sent out of the way to Dublin a few years previously in 1712-13.[1]  As the publication of any book on any subject by a member of the community required the imprimatur of the Mahamad, the ruling committee of oligarchs of the synagogue, and as Messias had not requested this, the publication was repressed and only one copy of the print run is known to have survived. In 1951 the purchase of this Prayer Book for Bevis Marks Synagogue was organised by the Honourable Archivist Richard Barnett, at the time Keeper in the Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities at the British Museum, on the occasion of the synagogues 250th anniversary. This has now passed to the Leopold Müller Library as part of the Weiss Sephardi Collection – a truly unique addition to a fascinating collection at Oxford.

[Orden de las oraciones cotidianas Joseph Messias, London, 1721 PB 347]


[1] I am much indebted to the archivist Mr Ton Tielen in the Netherlands for unearthing this revealing snippet of information from the records of the Amsterdam community.

 

 


aron


Aron Sterk
did his doctorate in Jewish Studies at Manchester University. From October this year he will be based at the University of Lincoln for a project in association with the Royal Society and the Science Museum researching the life and work of the 18th century Jewish naturalist and secretary of the Royal Society Emanuel Mendes da Costa. While doing background research on a manuscript English translation of the Spanish and Portuguese Prayer Book in the Gaster collection of the John Rylands Library of Manchester University he had occasion to check out the holdings of the Bodleian Library and the Leopold Muller Memorial library in its lovely new building.

For further details of the Rylands manuscript see the John Rylands Institute Conference.

New Acquisition: Haggadah shel Pesah [happy Passover!]

Tonight is the first night of the Jewish festival of Pesah (Passover), celebrated every year from the 15th to the 22nd day of Nissan. This year, the holiday starts on the 22nd of April and ends next Saturday, April the 30th. Passover commemorates the biblical exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt. To learn more, click here.

The text of the Passover seder, a special family meal, is written in a book called the Haggadah. Our Library holds numerous copies of Haggadot according to different local customs. Among our recent acquisitions, is a copy of a sephardi Haggadah printed in London in 1813. This particular version is an augmented edition of Alexander’s London Haggadah of 1806, and is the first Haggadah with Spanish translation printed in London (source). The book was presented to the Leopold Muller Memorial Library on long-term loan by the Lewis Family Interests.

The Haggadah contains several engravings, among them a couple of folded maps, one of those being a ‘Plan explanatory of the Passage of the Red-Sea by the Israelites’, depicted below. All in all, feast for the eyes. Enjoy!

Hagadah shel Pesah ke-minhag sefaradim = Orden de la Agada de Pesah, en Hebraico y Espanol, según uzan los Judios, Espanoles, y Portuguezes, traducido del Hebraico y Caldeo. Por Senior Jacob Meldula, de Amsterdam. London : Printed by L. Alexander, Whitechapel-Road, A.M. 5573 [1813]

New Acquisition: ‘A Woman’s Life: Pauline Wengeroff and Memoirs of a Grandmother’ by Shulamit S. Magnus

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Abstract (source): In 1908, Pauline Wengeroff published the first piece of writing by a woman in the history of Jewish literature to tell the story of a life and a family with historical consciousness and purpose. It is also the first account in this literature to make women, and men, the focus of a gendered inquiry. Shulamit Magnus’s biography of this extraordinary woman lets readers share Wengeroff’s life, her aspirations, and her disappointments, making a significant contribution to women’s history and to our understanding of the emergence and shape of Jewish modernity. (The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization, 2016)

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New Acquisition: ‘Jewish Rights, National Rites: Nationalism and Autonomy in Late Imperial and Revolutionary Russia’ by Simon Rabinovitch

pid_23788Abstract (source): In its full-color poster for elections to the All-Russian Jewish Congress in 1917, the Jewish People’s Party depicted a variety of Jews in seeking to enlist the support of the broadest possible segment of Russia’s Jewish population. It forsook neither traditional religious and economic life like the Jewish socialist parties, nor life in Europe like the Zionists. It embraced Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian as fulfilling different roles in Jewish life. It sought the democratization of Jewish communal self-government and the creation of new Russian Jewish national-cultural and governmental institutions. Most importantly, the self-named “folkists” believed that Jewish national aspirations could be fulfilled through Jewish autonomy in Russia and Eastern Europe more broadly. Ideologically and organizationally, this party’s leadership would profoundly influence the course of Russian Jewish politics.

Jewish Rights, National Rights provides a completely new interpretation of the origins of Jewish nationalism in Russia. It argues that Jewish nationalism, and Jewish politics generally, developed in a changing legal environment where the idea that nations had rights was beginning to take hold, and centered on the demand for Jewish autonomy in Eastern Europe. Drawing on numerous archives and libraries in the United States, Russia, Ukraine, and Israel, Simon Rabinovitch carefully reconstructs the political movement for Jewish autonomy, its personalities, institutions, and cultural projects. He explains how Jewish autonomy was realized following the February Revolution of 1917, and for the first time assesses voting patterns in November 1917 to determine the extent of public support for Jewish nationalism at the height of the Russian revolutionary period. (Stanford University Press, 2014)

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New Acquisition: ‘The Swedish Jews and the Victims of Nazi Terror, 1933-1945’ by Pontus Rudberg

 

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Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Studia Historica Upsaliensia 253, Editores: Margaret Hunt, Jan Lindegren & Maria Agren.

Abstract: “We will be judged in our own time and in the future by measuring the aid that we, inhabitants of a free and fortunate country, gave to our brethren in this time of greatest disaster.” This declaration, made shortly after the Pogroms of November 1938 by the representatives of the Jewish communities in Sweden, was truer than anyone could have anticipated at the time. It is this sensitive and much debated issue – Jewish responses to the persecutions and mass murders of Jews during the Nazi era – with which this book deals. What actions did Swedish Jews take to aid the Jews in Europe during the years 1933-45 and what determined and constrained their policies and actions?

This book focuses especially on the aid efforts of the Jewish Community of Stockholm, showing the range of activities in which the Community engaged, and the challenges and opportunities presented by official refugee policy in Sweden and by international organizations for refugee aid and foreign relief to Jews. Wheareas previous research has tended to see the Swedish Jewish response to Nazi terror as passive and overly cautious, this book modifies this picture. It concludes that in fact Swedish Jews acted incessantly and on many fronts to aid their brethren, and they did so throughout the entire period 1933 to 1945. Moreover, the form and limited scope of that aid are ultimately attributable more to rigid governmental refugee policies, inadequate financial resources, and international pressures than to a lack of effort or will on the part of Swedish Jews.