“The best memorial of lives given in the defence of England and English ideals is something which will better the lives of those who are left and tend to make more secure the civilization for which our comrades have shed their blood.”
Found within a copy of J.C. Blomfield’s History of Lower and Upper Heyford belonging to the George Dew Collection in the Bodleian Library is a snap shot showing the response of two small Oxfordshire villages to the losses suffered during the Great War.
The work was published in 1892 and is a comprehensive history of the Heyfords from the earliest times. The bookplate confirms it was originally acquired to stock the shelves of the Lower Heyford and Caulcott War Memorial Library. However, twelve typed and handwritten pages inserted at the beginning of the volume show the efforts made by the parish of Lower Heyford (which includes Caulcott) to raise money for a memorial library to commemorate the sacrifice made by the families from the area.
The first annotated page lists the war dead, by location, regiment or corps, date and age. Of eleven killed in action, seven fell in 1917, three in 1916 and one in 1918. The second, third and fourth pages are the typed open letter distributed on behalf of the men serving towards the end of 1917 (one of the undersigned, George Larner, was killed later on 4th November 1917) to the population of the parish appealing for donations to create the memorial library. The quotation above is drawn from this letter, and shows the feeling of the men in their purpose to create lasting memorial to their comrades.
The sixth and seventh pages list the contributors to the fund, ranging from Captain Cottrell Dormer who gave five pounds, down to a Miss Humphries who donated three pence. Many of the surnames of this list are the same as those on list of the dead. Pages eight to ten offer an interesting insight for an Oxfordshire military historian of the Great War. Sixty-two names are listed showing the other men who served from the area who were not killed during the war. Their regiments and corps are listed also, previous and current, thereby showing the transference of manpower from some arms to others. Pages eleven and twelve show other charitable efforts made by the area during the conflict. This included just over £178 raised for the Red Cross Society, while ‘The Egg League’ gathered 60,686 eggs which were sent to the ‘Base Hospital in Oxford.’
Overall, the twelve pages provide an in-depth view of the considerable contribution to the 1914-1918 war effort by a small rural area, and its great cost.
Shelfmark: Vet. A7 d.799
— from Sarah Wheale, Head of Rare Books, Bodleian Libraries
Mike Webb (Curator of Early Modern Archives and Manuscripts) writes:
The second Bodleian Students Editions catalogue is now available online through Early Modern Letters Online (EMLO). These letters were transcribed in the second of the Bodleian Libraries Manuscript and Textual Editing Workshops, held in the Centre for Digital Scholarship in the Weston Library on 1 December 2016. (Details of the workshop programme, along with an account of the first workshop, can be found here.)
The letters used in this workshop were in a volume of the Carte manuscripts, which mainly comprises the papers of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond (1610-1688), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland three times between 1643 and 1685. Six letters written by women to Ormond in April and May 1660 were selected, all in MS. Carte 214. Women used italic script in the 17th century as most were not taught the ‘secretary hand’ used in legal and administrative documents of the period, and often in private letters also. Italic hands are easier to read for those not formally trained in palaeography, and so more suitable for these workshops, which offer a wide-ranging introduction to undergraduates and postgraduates of all disciplines, many of whom had never previously worked with original manuscripts.
The Bodleian volume 4º Rawl. 566 is a bound set of 217 broadside ballads printed in the seventeenth century. The broadsides, half-folio sheets typical of ballad publications at the time, are attached by their left-hand edges and thus form an oblong book with the ballads reading on the recto of each leaf.
A vellum binding, damaged at the spine, encloses the volume, with Rawlinson’s bookplate inside the front cover.
The source of the volume before it came into Richard Rawlinson’s possession has not yet been discovered. The ballads themselves are in a fragile state. Several are torn or damaged, and some are repaired.
Inscriptions on the reverse of some ballads in the volume appear to show that, wherever it was held at the time, it was used on Sept. 23, 1720, by Benjamin Osborne and Elizabeth Townsen [Townsend?] to practice writing.
The image gallery below gives access to the full-resolution images of inscriptions in this volume.
The antiquary, author and bibliophile Anthony Wood (1632-1695) left, among other collections, several volumes of broadside ballads to the University of Oxford. These were bequeathed to the Ashmolean Museum and transferred in 1858 to the Bodleian Library.
Some of the broadside ballads in this collection bear manuscript annotations of various kinds, from childish pen trials to reference notes. The annotations are described and mostly transcribed in Nicolas Kiessling’s catalogue, The Library of Anthony Wood (Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 2002), in which Ballads are items 367-843.
What follows is a list of annotations found on the reverse of ballads in one volume, shelfmarked Wood 401. References are given to the entries in Kiessling’s catalogue in which the annotations are transcribed. An image gallery at the end of this post gives access to the full-resolution images.
Most of the ballads in the volume have been attached in the middle of the sheet, and thus occupy two numbered leaves of the volume, with the printed ballad visible on the verso of the first leaf and the recto of the following leaf. Annotations relating to each ballad are usually on the recto of the first leaf, i.e. on the blank page (in this volume) before the printed ballad.
The shepherd and the king, and of Gillian the shepherds wife
MS note on reverse: vide Malmsburiens. de Reg. Angl. lib. 2 – fol. 23. see ye 2d part of R. Parsons his conversions cap. 6. p. 418-419. [i.e. William of Malmesbury, Chronicle of the kings of England, and Persons, Robert, A treatise of three conversions of England … (1603)].
Robin Hood and the tanner; or, Robin Hood met with his match
With a page attached in Wood’s handwriting, citing historical and poetical references to Robin Hood by John Major and Michael Drayton
The wofull lamentation of Mistris Jane Shore, a Goldsmiths wife in London, sometimes King Edward the seconds Concubine, who for her wantan life came to a miserable end. Set forth for the example of all lewd women.
Woodcut pasted to recto of fol. 45
A memoriable [sic] song on the unhappy hunting in Chevy Chase between Earle Piercy of England and Earle Dowglas of Scoland [sic]
Annotations on a slip attached between fols. 46 and 47, and on recto of fol. 47
A true relation of the life and death of sir Andrew Barton, a pyrate and rover on the seas
Annotations on recto of fol. 55
The most rare and excellent history of the duchesse of Suffolks calamity
Annotations on recto of fol. 57
The dolefull dance and song of death; intituled, Dance after my pipe
Annotations on recto of fol. 60
Lord Willoughby; or, A true relation of a famous and bloody battel fought in Flanders
Annotations on recto of fol. 67
“The story of the Ld Willoughby following, is to be und[er]stood as done by Peregrine Bertie Lord Willoughby of Eresby, about 29. Reg. Elizab.\”
The life and death of famous Thomas Stukelie an English gallant in the time of Queen Elizabeth
The lamentable ditty of the little Mousgrove, and the Lady Barnet
Iohn Arm-strongs last good night
Murder upon murder, committed by Thomas Sherwood, alias, countrey Tom: and Elizabeth Evans, alias, Canbrye Besse
The initials A W in MS below the woodcut on the right side of the sheet; on the reverse of the backing paper is a MS note by Anthony Wood, showing descent of Holt family.
Britaines honour. In the two valiant Welchmen, who fought against fifteene thousand Scots, at their now comming to England
Pen-trials by Wood on the front of the ballad. On the reverse (fols 131 recto and 132 verso) are verses, drawings, and pen trials. A Bodleian note states that these were uncovered in 1881.
A new Spanish tragedy. Or, More strange newes from the narrow seas
Date “1640- or 41” on the front of the ballad. On the reverse (fols 137 recto and 138 verso) are verses, drawings, and pen trials, and one signature of Anthony Wood.
Images of most of the pages described, which are either the direct versos of the printed ballads, or the reverse of the blank papers onto which the ballads were pasted, are in the gallery included here.
Printed books belonging to Anthony Wood are found by the shelfmark ‘Wood’ in the online catalogue.
Wood’s manuscripts kept in the Bodleian are described here:
The Bodleian’s Bibliographical Press continues experimenting with techniques from the hand-press period. This transformation print [see pictures of the original] held at Bodleian MS Wood E 25(10) is one of several from the 17th and 18th centuries containing the same general theme under the title, ‘The beginning, progress, and end of man’. The Bodleian’s copy has the imprint, ‘Printed for J. Deacon, at the Angel in Guilt-spur Street‘. The same images appear in an edition at Harvard with the imprint, ‘London: Printed by E. Alsop for T. Dunster, 1654‘; another version, ‘Printed by B. Alsop for T. Dunster, 1650‘, is in the Thomason collection at the British Library. Several other versions exist, and the Bodleian also holds a manuscript version from the 18th century.
At Broadside Day 2017, in the Weston Library, Jacqui Reid-Walsh will speak about ‘The beginning, progress, and end of man’ as an interactive text.
Meanwhile, Richard Lawrence at the Bodleian’s Bibliographical Press is experimenting with printing transformations using two blocks; here using reproductions in zinc based on the Bodleian’s copy. From this experiment it appears that the transformation could be achieved using two blocks, ‘Adam’ and the ‘mermaid’; one printed on the centre of the sheet, and the other printed over this on the outside, after the upper and lower edges were folded to meet in the middle. As further evidence for this hypothesis, the Bodleian’s copy shows blocks printed over the deckled edges of the paper. We still wonder why, in these 17th-century editions at least, the title (on the outer side) and imprint (on the inner side) are interrupted by large gaps at the latitude of the join.
Thanks to Kim Vousden for graphic design to prepare the images for reproduction as printing blocks.
Peter Rukavina, in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, printed Sonnet 99 for the Bodleian’s appeal for Shakespeare’s sonnets printed by any means of relief printing in 2016, the 400th anniversary of the poet’s death. The images below, supplied by Peter Rukavina, indicate the process. The finished product can be seen in this animation, by Adam Koszary. https://youtu.be/2LHpc0kFzss
Sonnet 99, Peter Rukavina, Reinvented Press, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Letterpress printed on a Golding Jobber No. 8 Press.